Stem Cell or Bone Marrow Transplantation

Stem cell transplantation, also known as bone marrow transplantation, is used to treat blood diseases such as aplastic anemia, bone marrow failure, and blood cancers, as well as to restore blood-forming cells in the body.

Types of Stem Cell Transplantation

  • Autologous stem cell transplantation
  • Allogenic stem cell transplantation from the following sources:
    • 100% Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching (match-related donor)
    • Donor with 1 to 3 points HLA mismatch (mismatch donor)
    • Unrelated donor with 100% HLA matching (match-unrelated donor)
    • Donor who is the recipient’s sibling, parent or child with 50% HLA matching (haploidentical donor)


Sources of Stem Cells

Stem cells are collected from the following sources:
  • Bone marrow
  • Bloodstream
  • Placenta/cord blood

Diseases or conditions which can be treated by stem cell transplantation

  • Autologous stem cell transplantation is used to treat the following diseases:
    • Multiple myeloma – cancer of plasma cells
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukemia
    • Severe autoimmune diseases which cannot be controlled with medication
  • Allogenic stem cell transplantation is used to treat the following diseases:
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukemia
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
    • Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID)
    • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which is an inherited immune system disorder
    • Pure Red Cell Aplasia 
    • Amegakaryocytosis/Congenital Thrombocytopenia
    • Thalassemia
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Inherited Metabolic Disorders
    • Myelodysplastic Syndrome which is a disorder of blood cell production in the bone marrow

Stem Cell Transplantation Procedure

Before Treatment: The patient will first be evaluated for eligibility. The physician will decide the type of treatment, set a treatment plan for before transplantation, and use chemotherapy and/or radiation in the preparation process.  
During Treatment: The patient will be admitted to a special sterile room to reduce the risk of infection. The patient will then receive chemotherapy and/or radiation to kill abnormal cells (normal cells can also be damaged by the treatment). After the chemotherapy and/or radiation, the peripheral stem cell transplantation will be administered. It also takes time for the bone marrow or stem cells to work properly. The patient will need to be under close observation and take precautionary measures so as to prevent possible complications.

Risks and Complications

  • Infection from low immunity during transplantation process
  • Graft versus host disease which is commonly associated with allogeneic transplantation
  • High doses of chemotherapy possibly affecting organs and causing life-threatening side effects


Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Horizon Regional Cancer Center
Bumrungrad International Hospital (BIH) Building, 8th floor, North Wing
Bumrungrad Internataionl Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

For Appointments and Inquiries

Fax. +66 2011 5151

For Advice and Information

Clinical Nurse Coordinator for Bone Marrow Transplant
Tel: +66 (0) 2011 2881

Online Appointment: Make appointment here
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